A National Survey of Immunization Programs Regarding Immunization Information Systems Data Sharing and Use

Curran EA, Seib KG, Wells K, Hannan C, Bednarczyk RA, Hinman AR, Omer SB

J Public Health Manag Pract 2013 Dec;

PMID: 24378609


OBJECTIVE:: To determine and characterize practices regarding data sharing and usage (particularly for research) in immunization information systems (IISs), as well as barriers to using such data for research.

DESIGN:: We surveyed immunization program managers (IPMs) associated with all 64 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention grantee immunization programs (IPs) between July and September 2012.

RESULTS:: More than 95% of IPMs (61/64) responded. The top 2 barriers reported by IPMs to using IIS data for research were insufficient time and too few employees, irrespective of whether or not the jurisdiction reported using data for research purposes. Those IPMs who agreed with the statement “Research is part of the mission of an immunization program” were more likely to report using data for research (P = .045). Among those who responded, the most common kind of IIS research conducted involved determinants of vaccination coverage (n = 24/26; 92%). A greater percentage of IPMs in jurisdictions that reported using IIS data for research reported having data-sharing agreements in place. Those IPs that have used IIS data for research were more likely to report online IIS provider enrollment, integration with insurance company records, and integration with hospital records. Alternatively, IPs that did not report using IIS data for research were more likely to have IISs with modules addressing topics such as adverse event reporting, smallpox, and first-responder vaccination.

CONCLUSION:: Staff size and time were the 2 most cited barriers to conducting research with IIS data. Therefore, focus should also be placed on providing IPs with the resources needed to conduct such research.

Immunization Information Systems: A Decade of Progress in Law and Policy

Martin DW, Lowery NE, Brand B, Gold R, Horlick G

J Public Health Manag Pract 2014 Jan;

PMID: 24402434


This article reports on a study of laws, regulations, and policies governing Immunization Information Systems (IIS, also known as “immunization registries”) in states and selected urban areas of the United States. The study included a search of relevant statutes, administrative codes and published attorney general opinions/findings, an online questionnaire completed by immunization program managers and/or their staff, and follow-up telephone interviews.The legal/regulatory framework for IIS has changed considerably since 2000, largely in ways that improve IIS’ ability to perform their public health functions while continuing to maintain strict confidentiality and privacy controls. Nevertheless, the exchange of immunization data and other health information between care providers and public health and between entities in different jurisdictions remains difficult due in part to ongoing regulatory diversity.To continue to be leaders in health information exchange and facilitate immunization of children and adults, IIS will need to address the challenges presented by the interplay of federal and state legislation, regulations, and policies and continue to move toward standardized data collection and sharing necessary for interoperable systems.

Electronic immunization data collection systems: application of an evaluation framework

Heidebrecht CL, Kwong JC, Finkelstein M, Quan SD, Pereira JA, Quach S, Deeks SL

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2014;14:5

PMID: 24423014


BACKGROUND: Evaluating the features and performance of health information systems can serve to strengthen the systems themselves as well as to guide other organizations in the process of designing and implementing surveillance tools. We adapted an evaluation framework in order to assess electronic immunization data collection systems, and applied it in two Ontario public health units.

METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems are broad in nature and serve as an organizational tool to guide the development of comprehensive evaluation materials. Based on these Guidelines, and informed by other evaluation resources and input from stakeholders in the public health community, we applied an evaluation framework to two examples of immunization data collection and examined several system attributes: simplicity, flexibility, data quality, timeliness, and acceptability. Data collection approaches included key informant interviews, logic and completeness assessments, client surveys, and on-site observations.

RESULTS: Both evaluated systems allow high-quality immunization data to be collected, analyzed, and applied in a rapid fashion. However, neither system is currently able to link to other providers’ immunization data or provincial data sources, limiting the comprehensiveness of coverage assessments. We recommended that both organizations explore possibilities for external data linkage and collaborate with other jurisdictions to promote a provincial immunization repository or data sharing platform.

CONCLUSIONS: Electronic systems such as the ones described in this paper allow immunization data to be collected, analyzed, and applied in a rapid fashion, and represent the infostructure required to establish a population-based immunization registry, critical for comprehensively assessing vaccine coverage.

Growth Curves for Laron Syndrome

Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of 41 patients with this syndrome. Growth retardation was already noted at birth. Postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency.

Arch. Dis. Child. 1993 Jun;68(6):768-70

Laron 1993 (Arch Dis Child) | PubMed 8333769 | Author Search